Ticks as biological vectors and reservoirs of diseases, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), have an important role in the transmission of pathogens to humans and animals. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the biodiversity indices, distribution, and fauna of the vectors of CCHF in Ahvaz, Iran.
The tick samples were collected and identified from the head, ear, groin, under the tail, and around the rectum of cattle, sheep, and goats in spring and autumn. Biodiversity indices were calculated based on the host type. Moreover, the frequency map of the ticks was drawn using ArcGIS software (version 10.4).
A total of 287 livestock were examined in this descriptive cross-sectional study. Overall, five species of tick were identified from three genera. Frequency rates of Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Boophilus annulatus were calculated as 21.25%, 2.5%, 61.25%, 11.25%, and 3.75%, respectively. According to the Shannon-Weiner index, the species diversity of the goat host was less than that of the hosts of cow and sheep. In addition, based on the Simpson index, the diversity of dominant species in the goat host was less than that of the other two hosts. Furthermore, the species richness index in sheep host was the highest among the hosts. However, the evenness index of the species based on the host type was calculated to be the highest equal to 0.789 for the host of the cow.
According to the obtained results, there was a relation between biodiversity indices and tick-borne diseases. The aforementioned relationship provides useful information in terms of preventing diseases transmitted by ticks.
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