Neonatal jaundice is an increase in serum bilirubin that is the most common cause of hospitalization in newborn infants. Often the cause of the jaundice is unknown, but many predisposing factors are involved in the development of jaundice. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the type of delivery and the incidence and severity of jaundice in the neonates.
This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 170 newborns in Al-Zahra and Children’s hospitals, Tabriz, Iran in 2016. The data was collected through a questionnaire and included sections: infant information, maternal information, and questions about mother's disease, history of jaundice in the siblings and the type of management. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical tests and the value of P<0.05 was considered as a meaningful level.
A total 170 Infants with jaundice were enrolled that 60.1% were boys and 39.9% girls. The route of delivery were vaginal birth in 39.8% of the patients and 60.2% were delivered by cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between hyperbilirubinemia (10-14.9 mg/dl) and type of delivery (P =0.01). The jaundice was appeared between days 4 to 7 of birth in 41.4% of cases and in 25% of patients was observed in the first 24 hours after birth. The most common blood group among mothers were A and O (35.2%) and their Rh type in 98.8% cases were positive. The gestation age in 70.3% of newborns was ranged from 34 to 37 weeks with a significant correlation with the incidence of jaundice.
This study showed, delivery by cesarean section is associated with jaundice in the newborn. Therefore, the promotion of normal vaginal delivery in the country is recommended as a fundamental policy to improve the health of mothers and reduce the rate of cesarean section.