Free radicals have singlet electron in their outer layer rendering them high reactivity against biomolecules (i.e., DNA, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Oxidative stress is created when the production of free radicals exceeds their removal by antioxidant systems and is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, inflammatory conditions, and various cancers. Regarding the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles (NPs) in human diseases, the purpose of this study was to synthesize cerium oxide NPs using Origanum majorana leaf extract.
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of O. majorana. The sizes of NPs were characterized by a particle size analyzer. The antioxidant properties of the CeO2-NPs were determined by Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The anti-inflammatory effects of the NPs were also determined by measuring gene expressions of IL-1β and IL-10 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The CeO2-NPs were successfully synthesized using O. majorana leaf extract. The results of FRAP assay showed that the anti-oxidant activities of CeO2-NPs at concentrations of 50, 100, and 400 μg/mL were 75%, 77.1%, and 94.5%, respectively. Moreover, interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene expressions increased by 4.6 folds while the expression of IL-1β gene decreased by 0.75-fold in HUVECs.
The CeO2-NPs synthesized using the aqueous extract of O. majorana demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, these NPs can be used as potential therapeutic agents in medicine.