Considering that food insecurity can be a precursor to health and nutrition problems, determining its associated factors seems necessary in any society. The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the food insecurity, c-reactive protein (CRP), and some socio-economic factors in type 2 diabetic patients.
The present study was conducted on 200 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 200 healthy individuals within the age range of 30 to 59 years. Food security was assessed using the US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security questionnaire. Anthropometric index, physical activity, and biochemical factors were measured by questionnaire and blood test.
The prevalence of food insecurity was 71% within the diabetic patients, of which, 65.5% had food insecurity without hunger, 3.5% had food insecurity with moderate hunger, and 2% had food insecurity with severe hunger. In addition, 24.9% of the participants were healthy. The level of fasting blood glucose and inflammatory factors (CRP, WBC) were significantly higher in food insecure participants compared to the healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that food insecurity, BMI > 25, occupational status, economic status, and education level were significantly correlated with T2DM (P < 0.001).
As a result, health care providers should take measures to reduce the food insecurity in the community, specifically within T2DM patients. To this end, the individuals' economic status should be improved and the household food patterns should be modified.