Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of metabolic disorders including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, high glucose levels, and high blood pressure. The macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the effective factors in the occurrence of MetS. This study aimed to determine the association between the macronutrients intake and MetS in 20-69 year-old adult population of Yazd Greater Area, Iran.
This study used Yazd Health Study (YaHS) recruitment phase data. The YaHS was a prospective cohort conducted on a random sample of 10,000 Yazdian adults aged 20-69 years. To conduct this study data from TaMeZ (Taghzieh Mardom-e-Yazd) or Yazd Nutrition Study, which was a nutrition study associated with YaHS were also used. MetS was defined according to the ATP III criteria. Dietary intake was evaluated using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To evaluate the relationship between macronutrients and MetS, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used.
The odds ratio for the incidence of MetS was significantly higher in individuals who consumed higher amounts of carbohydrates. However, fat and protein intake did not have any significant relationship with odds of the developing MetS. Individuals with higher intake of carbohydrates had significantly higher odds of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.89, CI: 1.06-3.34); whereas, the probability of abdominal obesity decreased significantly in the highest quintile of protein intake (OR: 0.45, CI: 0.25-0.79).
High intakes of carbohydrate increased the odds of getting to MetS and abdominal obesity. However, high levels of protein reduced the odds of abdominal obesity. No association was found between fat intake and the odds of the MetS. More prospective studies are needed to determine the role of macronutrients in MetS.