Osteoporosis is known as reduction of bone density, which is diagnosed using dual‑energy X‑ray absorptiometry. Although some studies have shown high body mass index (BMI) as a protective factor for osteoporosis and fracture risks, some other studies demonstrated obesity as a risk factor for osteoporosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal and postmenopausal females. Furthermore, we determined the correlation between BMI and fracture risk in postmenopausal females.
In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the age and BMI with 10‑year probability fracture risk (estimated using fracture risk assessment tool) and BMD in the L1–L4 spine and femoral neck. Data were collected from BMD center, Askariye Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from May 2016 to July 2017.
The study consisted of 1361 individuals, including 305 premenopausal females and 1056 postmenopausal females. The results showed a statistically significant increase of BMD (P < 0.001) and a decrease of fracture risk (β = −0.158, R2 = 0.518) with an increase of BMI in postmenopausal females. Moreover, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were significantly higher in individuals with BMI ≥30 than in those with BMI <25 in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females (P < 0.001). In addition, older postmenopausal females indicated significantly lower L1–L4 BMD (r = −0.280, P < 0.05) and femoral neck BMD (r = −0.358, P < 0.05).
The results showed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD of the spine and femoral neck which did not differ by menopausal status. However, there was a correlation between BMI and fracture risk in postmenopausal females.
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