To understand the effects of forest degradation and their conversion to farmlands, the current research was conducted with emphasis on some soil biological indexes. In this regard, two different land use including an oak natural stand and a farm next to the forest and under cultivation since 20 years ago were surveyed. Within the each land use, three sampling plots with 10×10 meter dimension were randomly set and the soil was sampled form 0-10 cm depth and transformed to the laboratory. Afterwards, some biological variables such as soil basic microbial respiration, substrate induced respiration, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen, metabolic quotient, carbon availability index, Cmic/Corg, urease, alkaline and acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzymes were measured on the sample soils. The data were statistically analyzed by independent t-test. The results indicated that all of the microbial variables in the natural forest were higher around 2-3 folds than those in farmland. Although value of Cmic/Corg in the forest land use was higher around 10% than the farmland, the values of metabolic quotient, carbon availability index were same for the both land use. On the other hand, activity of alkaline phosphatase, due to phosphate fertilizers, was higher in the alfalfa cultivated farmland. According to our results, protection of the natural oak ecosystems can maintain soil quality.
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