The history of SiyƗsatnƗmeh (The Book of Statecraft) writing in Iran goes back to the fall of the Sassanid regime and the arrival of Islam. As generally, SiyƗsatnƗmeh was a guide book for rulers to retain state and to prevent its weakening. The usual way of writing these books had been in style of advising rulers with a combination of stories, illustrations, narratives and hadiths. The SiyƗsatnƗmeh used to pen by vuzarƗ, philosophers, adibƗn and fuqahƗ. Most of these works are based on principles such as: appointing Shah at the head of all affairs, Shah as a shadow of god, paying attention to justice, pragmatism, consideration of political realities, the parallelism of religion and politics and fate. Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk was the minister of two Seljuk Shahs, Alp ArslƗn and Malik-Shah, who was born in 408AH and by order of the Shah of Seljuk, he wrote the book of Siyar al-mulûk in fifty chapters. The structure of Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk's book is based on five entities: monarchy, ministry, judiciary, military, and administrative body, which include: bureaucratic affairs and the regulation of the affairs of the court and the administrative arrangements of the court. Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk's Siyar al-mulûk and Al-Ghazali's NasƯhatul Mulnjk(The Counseling Kings) are the richest SiyƗsatnƗmeh in Iranian history. Studies have shown that although these two SiyƗsatnƗmehs are akin to each other, the differences between Khawaja and Al-Ghazali's approaches lead to different approaches in dealing with issues.
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