Yellow rust is one of the major diseases of wheat that suffers a loss many farmers. The purpose of the current study, was determining the wheat proteome response to presence and non-presence of yellow rust disease using Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Relative resistance indices including infection type, severity of disease, contamination coefficient, surface under the disease development curve and apparent contamination rates are indicators that are used to identify the resistance or sensitivity of different cultivars. In this study, firstly these indicators studied for 14 bread wheat cultivars was obtained during three 7-day readings. The studied wheat cultivars were classified into three susceptible, resistant and semi-resistant groups using cluster analysis based on resistance indices. Accordingly, two Pishgam and Shahriar cultivars were identified as the most resistant and sensitive cultivars, respectively. Changes in the pattern of expression of proteins in two resistant (Pishgam) and susceptible (Shahriyar) cultivars by tow dimensional electrophoresis of were investigated. The results of statistical analysis showed that 27 protein spots out of 442 repeated protein spots showed a change in expression. Significant changes in total proteins, 17 spots, increased expression, and 10 spots decreased expression. In general, the results of this study showed that the difference in proteome pattern of two resistant and susceptible wheat cultivars to yellow rust could indicate a change in the expression of the enzymes and proteins involved in resistance, and possibility to resist pathogenic agents.
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