There is a close relationship between history and literature while epistemology is one of the motivations for such a relationship (Farahani Monfared, 1994, 24). The arts and literature as well as science and technologies are relied on the past events. Historical knowledge cannot be considered as a leisure activity, but it is an important obligation which is formed for general and particular apprehension (Stanford, 2007, 186). Epistemology is one of the three tenets for all sciences which create all process of knowledge and conceptualization along with ontology and methodology. Actually, epistemology deals with contexts of knowledge and the ways that human discover the world (Boril & Morgan, 2995, 9). According to Heidegger, the arts are manifestation, a different method which vitalize truth so each period correspond with the method that creates truth (Bolt, 1395:74)
One the other hand, poetry as an abstract form of all arts is an ontological and historical manifestation. In these cases, a poet does not give historical and logical meaning to the phenomenon, though he is not separate from history and its related issues. According to Heidegger, poets are the excellence of their era, since they decide to capture the related aspects by their words. They are more ubiquitous than other humans and more sensitive to the potential capacity of the language in the cases of revealing the human dimensions for him as well as attachment to the historical, social and natural reality (Gelen Gary, 1999, 90).
Recognition of Hafiz’s historical knowledge can explain the effect of his historical and social conditions as well as the level and characteristics of historical knowledge in his poetry, since Hafiz grew in particular historical and geographical contexts. This research with its descriptive-analytic methods and utilization of Heidegger’s theoretical concepts tries to explain backgrounds, preconceptions, and the characteristics of his intuition and historical knowledge in his poems.
Hafiz reflects our intuition and heritage in the history. History does is not considered as the books and the texts that were used for historiography; but, it is defined as the issues and problems which are passed in the history of a country. On the other hand, it must be said that the poet is a historic creature who grows in a particular time and place; so, he mentions the concepts and the elements of their national and historical identity in the poems. This kind of utilization has a close relationship with historical knowledge and intelligence as well as his attitude to this sphere and history of its territory. The knowledge and mentality of Hafiz in his poetry are based on the historical events and its related elements.
Any kind of understanding and recognition is basically chronological and historical. Realism, and Hafiz's backgrounds as well as historical and social and cultural context of his time and his past had an effective role in definition and formation of his historical viewpoint and knowledge in his poetry. In fact, factors like Hafiz growing up in a religious family, his reliance on the Quran as an inspiring source, along with study and thinking in historical texts like Shahnameh, and being surrounded by historical, ancient ad cultural geography of Fars and living in a turbulent period has brought special capacities in the presuppositions of his historical viewpoint.
-Hafiz's historical view and knowledge in his poetry stems from various components like will and liberty, special attention to Jam-e Jam, making use of history as a means for creating content and serving as an example, trying to use historical and mythological elements, concepts and characters of Iran before and after Islam. Among these, prophets and religious figures besides historicak and mythological characters of Iran in pre-Islamic times had the highest frequency in his poems.
- In Hafiz's poetry history and its relative concepts and elements have been used as a cognitive tool in the service of offering wisdom concepts and the transience of the materialistic world and power.
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