Sustainable Urban Development Based on Social Capital and Public Trust Indicators, Case Study: District 2, Tehran
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Abstract:

Migration from cities to villages has led to the development of urbanization and the creation of new concepts that can be taken the step into sustainable urban development based on components such as social capital and public trust. From doing this the present study is aimed at sustainable urban development by relying on social capital and public trust indices. The research method this research is a case study and descriptive-analytic type and is executed through the correlation coefficient. The data gathering tool is a questionnaire that is used to measure public trust by Piran Nejad's Public Trust Questionnaire (2008), the social capital by Grotert et al. Questionnaire (1998) and urban sustainable development by Glend and Eka Questionnaire (2001). The statistical population is the citizens of the 2nd district of Tehran. District 2 has 21 neighborhoods and 9 regions. According to the Iran Census 2017, the population of this region was 701,303 (239,742 family) consists of 343.033 males and 358.270 females. District 2 of Tehran Municipality is divided into 4 regions, 30 neighbors and 14 councils. 374 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS software and statistical methods such as Pearson's correlation analysis, and mean analysis. According to the results, social capital and public trust affect sustainable urban development (p=0.000). Social capital indices affect sustainable urban development (p=0.000). Public confidence indices affect urban sustainable development (P=0.000). It can be concluded that in urban sustainable development, two components of social capital and public trust are considered.



 


 
 



 
Extended Abstract

Introduction

         Rapid urbanization is one of the most major challenges of the present century and has created complex problems, especially for developing countries. Therefore, for achieving a balanced harmonious and sustainable urban development, the use of existing economic and social physical capacities within the legal limits of the cities, balancing population deployment, preventing the unnecessary expansion of cities (internal development), and providing a healthy, safe and standard life is inevitable for a significant portion of the urban population. Hence, we should try to identify the factors affecting sustainable urban development. According to the provided definition in the Brundtland Report, most researchers examine sustainable development in three environmental, economic and social scopes. According to the cultural and social developments of Iranian society as a transitional society and given the importance of public trust in the social interactions of citizens in recent years, the issue of trust in individuals, groups, and organizations is of great importance (Ztompka, 2009: 53). Trust can be divided into three categories including trust in the individual, trust in the group, and trust in the organization. These three categories are closely linked. Our trust in an organization can be created by our trust in the individual or employed people in that organization. Also, our trust in an individual can be due to our trust in the organization in which that person works. Trust in the individual and trust in the organization are linked through the duties and situations that individuals have in the organization and the roles they play in that organization (Ghaffari, 2011: 21). According to the above-mentioned issues, the present study seeks to investigate what is sustainable urban development based on social capital and public confidence indicators. The research hypotheses are as follows.
-        It seems that social capital and public trust effects on sustainable urban development.
-        It seems that social capital indicators effects on sustainable urban development.
-        It seems that public trust indicators effects on sustainable urban development.

Methodology

          The research method is a case study and is executed through a descriptive-analytic type and correlation coefficient. The statistical population consists of citizens residing in district 2 of Tehran (239.724 households). The sample size of 383 people was estimated using the Cochran formula. By eliminating incomplete questionnaires, 374 questionnaires were analyzed. Then it distributed using simple and systematic sampling.
The data collection tool is a questionnaire. The Pirannezhad’s public trust questionnaire (2008) is used to measure the public trust, Grotert et al. questionnaire are used to measure social capital, and Glend and Akaya questionnaire (2001) is used to measure the sustainable urban development. The data analysis tool is the SPSS software.

Findings

          According to the results concerning the mean of the research variables, in the social capital scope, trust and alliance had the highest mean (3.844) and information and communication have the least mean (3.124). Also, in the social capital scope, all items are above average. Honesty & integrity and risk-taking have the highest and lowest mean, respectively. The honesty and integrity and reliability items are above average and the risk-taking variable is below the average. Regarding the results of the sustainable development scope, sustainable development has the lowest average (3.197) and sustainable environmental development has the highest average. Also, all Sustainable Development Items are above average.
According to the results concerning the impact of social capital and public trust on sustainable urban development, it can be said that the correlation coefficient and the significant degree of the component such as social capital (r = 0.887), (p = 0.000) and public trust (r = 0. 841), (p = 0.000) has an impact on sustainable urban development. The significance level of all variables is less than 0.01.
According to the results concerning the impact of social capital and sustainable urban development, it can be said that the correlation coefficient and the significance degree of the components such as groups and networks (r = 0.745), (p = 0.000), trust and alliance (r = 0.752), (P = 0.000), collaborative activities (r = 0.687), (p = 0.000), information and communication (r = 0.452), (p = 0.000), dependency and social inclusion (r = 0.845), (p = 0.000), empowerment and political activities (r = 0.712), (p = 0.000) affect the sustainable urban development.
According to the results concerning the effect of public trust and sustainable urban development, it can be said that the correlation coefficient and the significance degree of the components such as risk-taking (r = 0.287), (p = 0.000), honesty and integrity (r = 0.643), (p = 0.000) and reliability (r = 0.825), (p = 0.000) affect sustainable urban development.

Conclusion

          According to the results, social capital and public trust impact on sustainable urban development. In explaining the research hypothesis, it can be stated that when social capital has a high level in society, it has an effective role in the sustainable urban development through participation, empathy, trust, and empowerment and leads to its development. On the other hand, public trust has an impact on sustainable urban development. People's public trust promotes sustainable urban development. When people in society see honesty and integrity in the authorities and trust them, they promote the same factors of sustainable urban development. According to the results, social capital indicators have an impact on sustainable urban development. In a stable society, there is a higher degree of social capital. Social capital is the product of social interactions, which quantitatively and qualitatively has greater breadth and depth across the social network at the city level. The sense of social solidarity, trust between citizens, and informal controls that nowadays are all considered as social capital components are formed and regulated at the level of urban development. When groups and networks are present in the community, individuals trust each other and have unity, and also strive to engage in activities and sought to gain information and communication and social inclusion and finally, they can empower, strive for sustainable development and work with greater interest, therefore, from the perspective of sustainable development, social capital along with other capital consider as an integral part of any nation's wealth portfolio and one of the factors contributing to the development of the societies.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
Research and Urban Planning, Volume:11 Issue: 40, 2020
Pages:
201 - 216
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