Induction of the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells could represent a viable alternative therapeutic method for treating bone diseases. Stem cells are essential to bone tissue regeneration; although, their availability is limited. One possible method of increasing the number of stem cells and promote osteogenic differentiation is the application of red flesh dragon fruit extract supplement. The present study was performed to identify and analyze proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) after exposure to red flesh dragon fruit extract.
This in vitro study was posttest only control group design. Red flesh dragon fruit extract was produced by means of water extraction method and subsequent dilution with different amounts of water to produce a range of concentrations. BMMSCs were obtained from the femurs of three White New Zealand rabbits. BMMSCs were then treated with 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 μg/ml red flesh dragon fruit extract concentrations. The in vitro proliferation assay was determined by means of an 3‑(4.5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Osteogenic differentiation was determined by means of the degree of nodule mineralization. There were two groups as follows: group I with the addition of 50 μg/ml of red flesh dragon fruit extract and Group II without the addition of red flesh dragon fruit. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Student’s t‑test (P = 0.05).
50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 μg/ml of red flesh dragon fruit extract demonstrated the capacity to significantly increase the proliferation of BMMSCs (P ≤ 0.05). Red flesh dragon fruit extract could significantly increase osteogenic differentiation (P ≤ 0.05).
Red flesh dragon fruit extract enhances proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs.
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