We assessed dietary intakes in the high- and low-risk areas for esophageal cancer (EC) in Golestan province, Northern Iran.
Considering the EC rates, Golestan province was divided into high- and low-risk regions. Data on households' food consumption were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationships between consumption of main food and EC risk. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated. Joint point program was used for time trend analysis and average annual percent changes (AAPC) were reported.
Overall, 11910 households were recruited during 2006-2015. 4710 (39.5%) households were enrolled from the high-risk region. There were significant positive relationships between high consumption of sweets (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.24-2.10), oil/fat (aOR=1.36; 95% CI: 1.04-1.79), and red meat (aOR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.07-1.65) with EC risk. We found significant negative relationships between high consumption of dairy products (aOR=0.62; 95% CI: 0.46-0.82), vegetables (aOR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.50-0.87) and fruit (aOR=0.72; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95) with the risk of EC. Time trend analysis showed a significant increasing trend in the proportions of households with low consumption of vegetables (AAPC=4.71, p=0.01) and dairy products (AAPC=5.26, p =0.02) in the low-risk region for EC.
Dietary intakes may be important etiological factors for EC in Northern Iran. Further studies are warranted to assess the role of dietary factors in this high-risk population.
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