Diatoms are the most diverse algae of the aquatic ecosystems and springs are of high value as the habit of high biodiversity and an important source of drinking for mankind. Therefore, study of the springs' algae flora is very important at the conservation view. In this research, the diatom biodiversity of the Tizab Spring and the spring-fed river was studied for the first time. Thirty species were identified of which one species (Achnanthidium gracillimum) is a new record for diatom flora of Iran. The data revealed that the flora is much similar to the Karaj River flora. This similarity can be due to the close geographical locations as both rivers are located in the Central Alborz region. The distribution pattern of the species were studied in Iran based on the present references on the Iranian aquatic ecosystems. This study presented that two-third of the species had a widespread distribution. The comparison of the flora with known European and American database showed that most species are the elements of the northern hemisphere. Diatom biodiversity studies in the Central Alborz region is in its first steps. Therefore, much research should be performed to reveal the diatom biodiversity and the potential new species in the region.
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