Perceived Stress in the Elderly: The Role of Spiritual Intelligence, Self-Compassion, and Psychological Hardiness
Message:
Abstract:
Stress has been known as a phenomenon which is in relationship with physical and psychological health, and mental and health-related stressors are exacerbated with age. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of spiritual intelligence, self-compassion, and psychological hardiness in predicting perceived stress in the elderly. It was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population of this study included all the elderly in Ardabil, Iran in 2018, out of whom 120 were selected through convenience sampling. Data collection tools included Cohen, Kamarck and Mermelstein’s Perceived Stress Scale, King's Spiritual Intelligence Scale, Neff's Self-Compassion Scale, and Kobasa, Maddi and Kahan Psychological Hardiness Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and regression analysis by SPSS 21. Perceived stress in elderly showed a negative significant relationship with spiritual intelligence, self-compassion, and psychological hardiness (p<0.05). Spiritual intelligence, self-compassion, and psychological hardiness predicted 72% of the variance in perceived stress scores in the elderly (p <0.01). Therefore, due to the effects of spiritual intelligence, self-compassion, and psychological hardiness on perceived stress, it can be reduced by raising awareness and employing measures to empower the elderly in these areas. Stress has been known as a phenomenon which is in relationship with physical and psychological health, and mental and health-related stressors are exacerbated with age. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of spiritual intelligence, self-compassion, and psychological hardiness in predicting perceived stress in the elderly. It was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population of this study included all the elderly in Ardabil, Iran in 2018, out of whom 120 were selected through convenience sampling. Data collection tools included Cohen, Kamarck and Mermelstein’s Perceived Stress Scale, King's Spiritual Intelligence Scale, Neff's Self-Compassion Scale, and Kobasa, Maddi and Kahan Psychological Hardiness Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and regression analysisby SPSS 21. Perceived stress in elderly showed anegative significant relationship with spiritual intelligence, self-compassion,and psychological hardiness (p<0.05). Spiritual intelligence, self-compassion, and psychological hardiness predicted 72% of the variance in perceived stress scores in the elderly (p <0.01). Therefore, due to the effects of spiritual intelligence, self-compassion, and psychological hardiness on perceived stress, it can be reduced by raising awareness and employing measures to empower the elderly in these areas.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
Journal of Aging Psychology, Volume:5 Issue: 4, 2020
Pages:
289 - 299
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