Predicting Pain Catastrophizing of Women with Breast Cancer Based on Perceived Injustice and Past Time Perspective

Pain experience is still the most important problem in women with breast cancer that could lead to psychological problems. There is notable literature that revealed perceived injustice, time perspective, and pain catastrophizing are associated with the same psychological variables and health-related behaviors.


This study aimed at predicting pain catastrophizing based on a perceived injustice and past time perspective in women with breast cancer.


The present study was descriptive-correlational in terms of method. The statistical population consisted of all women aged 20 to 50 years with a breast cancer diagnosis in 5 hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Emam Khomeini, Hazraterasol, Mohebmehr, Shahram, and Khatam). A total of 142 voluntary patients were selected through the available sampling method. The instruments of the study included the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTIP), The Injustice Experiences questionnaire (IEQ), and the Pain Catastrophizing scale (PCS). The data was analyzed, using Pearson correlation and step by step regression and path analysis.


The results showed that perceived injustice, past negative, and past positive had a significant relationship with pain catastrophizing. The perceived injustice, past negative, explained approximately 72% of the variance of pain catastrophizing. Also, perceived injustice is a mediator variable between past negative and pain catastrophizing.


Overall, the results of this study support the role of past negative time perspective and perceived injustice in predicting pain catastrophizing in women with breast cancer. Since pain is experienced in a complex social and cultural milieu, there is a great value for identifying variables that might mitigate or exacerbate perceived pain and could contribute greatly to the development of more effective psychosocial treatments. Therefore, dealing with past negative time perspective and perceived injustice can prevent pain catastrophizing and, consequently, perceived pain and its intensity could be decreased.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
International Journal of Cancer Management, Volume:13 Issue: 4, 2020
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