The present study examined the relationship between muscle strength and range of motion in lower extremity with balance and risk of falling in the elderly.
This was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included healthy elderly (Mean±SD age: 65.64±4.95 y) in Rasht City, Iran. The study was conducted on 65 healthy elderly males who met the study inclusion criteria and were selected by convenience sampling method. In this study, to measure static and dynamic balance, Sharpened Romberg test and Get Up and Go test were conducted, respectively. Additionally, the falling risk was measured by the Berg Balance Scale. Moreover, the maximum isometric force of the muscle groups in the lower extremities was measured using a hand-held dynamometer, and the range of motion was measured by a goniometer. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics by SPSS.
The present study results demonstrated that the muscle strength of hip extension, hip abduction, hamstring, quadriceps, and ankle plantarflexion had a significant relationship with static balance; while being negatively related to dynamic balance (P≤0.05). Furthermore, we observed a significant and negative relationship between the muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion and dynamic balance and risk of falling (P≤0.05). There was also a positive and significant relationship between the range of motion hip extension, knee flexion, plantar flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion and static balance, while indicating a negative and significant relationship between these variables and dynamic balance and risk of falling (P≤0.05).
The muscle strength hip abduction, hip extensions, hamstring, quadriceps, plantar flexion, ankle dorsiflexion and range of motion hip extension, knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion, and dorsiflexion seem to affect balance maintenance and fall risk in the elderly.
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