Measurement of Spatial Equity in Public Services between Different Cities of West Azerbaijan Province

Spatial and regional inequalities are rooted in many issues, including; Implementing wrong policies by the center in the direction of zoning, Budget distribution and facilities, Improper administrative and political divisions and inconsistencies between different organizations to provide better services and perform assigned tasks, The concentration of population and facilities and immigration has increased in some places, which causes polarization and reduces facilities, Lack of optimal allocation of resources and credits and lack of proper regional policy in this field and finally these discrepancies and differences in different regions have eliminated sufficient integration and coherence for the evolution of development and it has highlighted the existing divisions and differences in all areas of development, and this trend has a definite and inevitable effect on the city, region and province. And it automatically transforms development policies, albeit correctly, and provides barriers to sustainable development. In this study, considering that in the province of West Azerbaijan, there is inequality and lack of optimal distribution of facilities and resources with the focus on facilities and services in the first dominant city, divergence and development gap between regions. It tries to collect various indicators and metrics in the fields of economics, social, physical, health-treatment and services to determine the extent to which the cities of West Azerbaijan province have convenience, facilities, etc.And with the help of common techniques for analyzing regional inequality to achieve balanced development, efforts are being made to determine which facilities and convenience are available in which cities, and in which cities these facilities and conveniences are scarce. The purpose of this article is to measure spatial justice in the distribution of public services among the cities of West Azerbaijan Province. To achieve the goal of the research, the main question is whether there is inequality between 17 cities of West Azerbaijan province in terms of spatial distribution of services? And we are trying to answer this question.


The research method used in this paper is based on descriptive-analytical method. Various documentary-library methods have been used to gather information.In order to achieve the objectives of this research, it extracted raw data from the statistical yearbook of 1392 and then converted the raw data into an index, which finally added 41 indicators to the SPSS software to explain the measurement of spatial justice. And after analyzing 41 indicators, 10 factors have finally emerged. Population, educational, cultural, health, religious, medical services, services (telephone, electricity), education (for exceptional children), health (laboratory), socio-cultural, social and welfare are divided into demographic factors. In this article, the statistical population are 17 cities of West Azerbaijan. To analyze the data using the factor analysis method used, in factor analysis, it is argued that whenever a number of variables are correlated with the subject under study, they are also correlated with each other. If the correlation between the variables is low, they do not appear to be contributing factors.

Results and discussion

Educational agents for Boukan, Naqadeh and Urmia counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively. And demographic factors for Urmia, Miandoab and Khoy counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively. Health-cultural factor that Poldasht, Makovarumieh counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively. Religious factor for Chaypareh, Miandoab and Shahin Dej counties are ranked 1-3 respectively. The ratio of registered religious delegations and the reliance on operational factors are at a high level, ie they are at a high level of significance, which is why this factor has been named as a religious factor. Therapeutic services for Mako, Chaldoran, Salmas counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively. The ratios of active medical institutions, general practitioners, and rehabilitation centers are at a high level. This means that they are at a high level of significance, which is why this factor has been named as a factor in medical services. Service agent for Sardasht, Takab, Chaypareh counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively. Educational agent for exceptional students for Piranshahr, Chaipareh and Oshnoyeh counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively.Laboratory agents for Shahin Dej, Khoy and Chaldoran counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively. The socio-cultural factors of Urmia, Oshnavieh and Boukan counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively, and the social and welfare factors of Urmia, Chaypareh and Chaldoran counties are ranked 1 to 3, respectively.


The leveling results of the cities showed that the cities of West Azerbaijan province were in unbalanced conditions; And since this leveling has been done in relation to the population and the area, we find that there is a significant relationship between the population of the cities and the area and level of public services. According to these results, the cities of Urmia, Khoy, Naghadeh are ranked first to third, respectively, and the cities of Piranshahr, Takab, and Buchan are ranked the last, respectively.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Journal of Geography and Planning, Volume:24 Issue: 71, 2020
151 - 171  
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