The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the consumption of an energy-dense diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian older adults.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 older adults who were living in Tehran, Iran. Dietary energy density (DED) was calculated as energy per weight of food, kcal/g. The usual intake of participants was measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile and blood pressure and were assessed. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP III).
Those who were in the third tertile of DED compared to the first tertile had 19% lower odds of having the cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) 0.81 (0.39,1.68) but the association was no significant (P=0.58). There was a significant inverse association between DED and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β=-0.14, P=0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (β=-0.17, P=0.01). We did not find any significant association between intake of energy-dense foods and serum levels of triglyceride (TG) (P=0.62), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P=0.06), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.72) and waist circumference (WC) (P=0.28).
DED is negatively associated with SBP and DBP in Iranian older adults. Prospective studies are needed to establish a causal link between DED and MetS and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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