A Reinvestigation of Criteria and Advantages of the Bifurcation of Monotheism into Theoretical and Practical with focus on Imami Theology

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

In their theological work, some contemporary Imami intellectuals have divided stages of monotheism (tawḥīd) into “theoretical” and “practical.” They have proposed definitions and criteria in order to explain the bifurcation. A consideration of this body of work reveals that there are troubles with these definitions and criteria of the division. A more precise inquiry is needed to resolve these troubles. Moreover, that the bifurcation was not deployed in some other works necessitates a reconsideration of its advantages. As a conclusion of this library-analytic research, it turns out that (a) theoretical monotheism is in the realm of insights, whereas practical monotheism is to be found in the realms of desire, character, and deeds, (b) in Imami theology or kalām, the division was innovated by Mutahhari—it cannot be found prior to him, (c) although there might be justifications for why the majority of Imami theologians have refrained from making a division between theoretical and practical kinds of monotheism, the bifurcation has its advantages.

Journal of Philosophy & Theology, Volume:25 Issue: 1, 2020
56 to 90
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