Although the metabolism of blood lipids has been widely considered in studies, lipid metabolism in the brain has attracted more attention in recent years due to its association with some neurological disorders. Recent studies have shown that a number of risk factors for early onset of Alzheimer's are associated with cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of aerobic training on some factors involved in the metabolism of cholesterol in the hippocampus and its role in improving the cognitive function of male Wistar rats. The subjects of this study were 26 adult male Wistar 8 weeks old (weight 195±20 g). At first, they were randomly divided into two groups: exercise (training on treadmill, 5 days a week for 8 weeks) (13 rats) and control (13 rats). After 8 weeks, the rats in each group were randomly assigned to two other subgroups: (7 rats: behavioral test, 5 rats were sacrificed). The results of one-way ANOVA of Morris water maze showed a significant improvement in learning (P<0.05) and memory (P<0.05) in the exercise group compared to the control group. Also, the results of one-way ANOVA showed a significant increase in the expression of mRNA APOE (P<0.05) and ABCA1 (P<0.05) and no significant difference in the level of Aβ1-42 (P>0.05) in the hippocampus in exercise group compared to the control group. Therefore, aerobic training by a significant increase in the expression of mRNA APOE and ABCA1, which are the main factors of lipid metabolism in the brain and which are involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, can be consistent with improving cognitive function as an effective way of preventing of Alzheimer's disease.
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