Lack of water resources and inefficiency of irrigation systems in rice fields, have made it necessary to optimize the usage style and increase the productivity of existing resources. It is necessary to find a crop water management approach with lower water consumption without affecting on the yield. Planting date is recognized as an effective factor on the different phonological stages of growth and finally crop yield.
This research was carried out to investigate the effect of irrigation management and planting date on the yield and water productivity in rice cultivation (Hashemi cultivar). The experiment was performed as a split-plot experiment based on a completely randomized block design with three replications in two years of 2016 and 2017 in Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht. Irrigation interval was considered as the main factor in 4 levels including, flooding, 5, 10 and 15 days. Planting date was assigned to subplots at three levels (April, 21st, May, 11th and May, 31st).
Based on the results, the effect of irrigation interval and planting date on the studied traits was significant at 1% of probability level. The highest paddy yield was observed flooding treatment (4271 kg per hectare) and the irrigation intervals of 5, 10 and 15 days with 3844, 3196 and 3264 kg/ha were in the next rank, respectively. According to the biomass yield, 15-day irrigation interval and flooding irrigation had the highest and lowest water irrigation productivity, respectively. In the study of different planting dates, the highest paddy yield (3795 and 3820 kg/ha, respectively) was observed in May, 11th, and May, 21th planting dates and the highest water productivity based on paddy and biomass yield was obtained in the April 21st planting date. The 5-day irrigation interval with a 10% reduction in paddy yield and saving 10% of irrigation rate was determined as the best irrigation management option under water-deficit conditions. The highest amount of water productivity was obtained in 10 and 15-day irrigation treatments, nevertheless, it is not defined as a logical option due to the significant decrease in yield compared to full flooding irrigation (with an average of 24 percent reduction in the paddy yield of rice and 14 percent reduction in the biological yield). investigating the effect of irrigation combined with planting date on the amount of paddy yield reduction and water productivity, illustrated that the application of 5-day irrigation treatment in the planting date of April, 21st had the highest paddy yield as well as the least water productivity decline.
Combination of planting date and irrigation Interval can be effective in increasing paddy yield and water productivity by maximizing the use of the environment. considering paddy and biomass yield of rice, water productivity and water consumption, five days irrigation treatment had the best paddy and biomass yield in April, 21st planting date. This treatment was the best treatment in terms of productivity and rice production, with 9% reduction in water use and 6% reduction in paddy yield of rice. Therefore, by using a five-day irrigation interval in the study area, by selecting of appropriate planting date, water productivity can be increased.
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