An integrated framework model for the analysis of sustainability in the agriculture water system (Case study, Jiroft plain- Kerman)
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Abstract:

An integrated framework model for the analysis of sustainability in the agriculture water system (Case study, Jiroft plain- Kerman) Fatemeh Adelisardou, Hamidreza Jafari , Bahram Malekmohammadi, Abdolreza Karbsai 1. Ph.D. Candidate of Environmental Planning, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (fatemeh.adeli67@ut.ac.ir) 2. Professor, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran 3. Associated professor, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran(malekb@ut.ac.ir) 4. Professor, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran(akarbasi@ut.ac.ir)

Introduction

Groundwater depletion is one of the main factors that determine the sustainability management of groundwater. Recently it has become a significantly debated topic, particularly for food production in the agricultural ecosystem of arid regions. Numerous groundwater scholars have tried to estimate the results and causes and of groundwater decline, and have shown that groundwater is being used at rates that exceed the natural rates of recharge, globally. Both climate change and excessive extraction, for irrigation, were responsible for groundwater level decline. In this study, groundwater depletion and its dynamic factors, including agricultural activity and metrological drought indexes, were investigated in the Jiroft plain- south of Kerman.

Material and Methods

The present study with an integrated approach investigated the groundwater level's change using statistical methods. In other to determine the role of agriculture activity on the groundwater level, the performance of the selected crop was determined. The main criteria for the selected crop were the highest area under cultivation. Selected crops were including wheat, barley, corn, watermelon, cucumber, potato, onion. In the next virtual water of selected crops based on blue and green water was calculated. On the other side, to determine the role of drought, the parameter in reducing groundwater level 6 meteorological indicators of SPI, RAI, DI, ZSI, CZI and, MCZI were examined in a ten-year period using RDIT software was determined.

Results

The results of this study show one-meter depletion in groundwater levels each year (Fig1). The results of virtual water offer the production and export of agricultural products with low economic value. Fig.1. The trend of groundwater level in the Jiroft plain Drought indicators are the most widespread years of severe drought related to the years 1379, 1383, 1389, and 1390 (Fig2). In other years, there is a moderate but frequent drought due to the dry nature and low rainfall in the region. In rare cases, it has faced a situation other than the drought. Fig.2. Status of the study area in terms of meteorological drought indicators The results showed that among the selected crops with the highest level of cultivation in the study area, wheat, and barley with 2621 and 2079 (m3/kg) had the highest amount of virtual water consumption. It is also worth mentioning that products such as watermelon need an average of 314 (M3/Kg) of green and blue virtual water. These results mentioned the trend of agricultural activity moved to low-value crops with the high water demand that has the largest share of exports.

Conclusion

This study revealed that human activities have a strong influence on the groundwater decline. At the same time, the effect of metrological drought was insignificant. Results from driving force analysis indicated that agriculture activity was the primary factor, and temperature and precipitation could be used as definite criteria for groundwater recharge. Therefore the problem of groundwater in the agricultural ecosystems is severe and needs to be highly valued. Modern management of farms with crops that need less water and produce more could also be useful for water-saving. Also, it is crucial to raise the awareness of farmers regarding water-saving. Keywords: Groundwater level, Virtual water, Metrological drought, Jiroft plain

Introduction

Groundwater depletion is one of the main factors that determine the sustainability management of groundwater. Recently it has become a significantly debated topic, particularly for food production in the agricultural ecosystem of arid regions. Numerous groundwater scholars have tried to estimate the results and causes and of groundwater decline, and have shown that groundwater is being used at rates that exceed the natural rates of recharge, globally. Both climate change and excessive extraction, for irrigation, were responsible for groundwater level decline. In this study, groundwater depletion and its dynamic factors, including agricultural activity and metrological drought indexes, were investigated in the Jiroft plain- south of Kerman.

Material and Methods

The present study with an integrated approach investigated the groundwater level's change using statistical methods. In other to determine the role of agriculture activity on the groundwater level, the performance of the selected crop was determined. The main criteria for the selected crop were the highest area under cultivation. Selected crops were including wheat, barley, corn, watermelon, cucumber, potato, onion. In the next virtual water of selected crops based on blue and green water was calculated. On the other side, to determine the role of drought, the parameter in reducing groundwater level 6 meteorological indicators of SPI, RAI, DI, ZSI, CZI and, MCZI were examined in a ten-year period using RDIT software was determined.

Results

The results of this study show one-meter depletion in groundwater levels each year (Fig1). The results of virtual water offer the production and export of agricultural products with low economic value. Fig.1. The trend of groundwater level in the Jiroft plain Drought indicators are the most widespread years of severe drought related to the years 1379, 1383, 1389, and 1390 (Fig2). In other years, there is a moderate but frequent drought due to the dry nature and low rainfall in the region. In rare cases, it has faced a situation other than the drought. Fig.2. Status of the study area in terms of meteorological drought indicators The results showed that among the selected crops with the highest level of cultivation in the study area, wheat, and barley with 2621 and 2079 (m3/kg) had the highest amount of virtual water consumption. It is also worth mentioning that products such as watermelon need an average of 314 (M3/Kg) of green and blue virtual water. These results mentioned the trend of agricultural activity moved to low-value crops with the high water demand that has the largest share of exports.

Conclusion

This study revealed that human activities have a strong influence on the groundwater decline. At the same time, the effect of metrological drought was insignificant. Results from driving force analysis indicated that agriculture activity was the primary factor, and temperature and precipitation could be used as definite criteria for groundwater recharge. Therefore the problem of groundwater in the agricultural ecosystems is severe and needs to be highly valued. Modern management of farms with crops that need less water and produce more could also be useful for water-saving. Also, it is crucial to raise the awareness of farmers regarding water-saving. Keywords: Groundwater level, Virtual water, Metrological drought, Jiroft plain

Article Type:
Case Study
Language:
Persian
Published:
Journal of Environmental Studies, Volume:45 Issue: 4, 2020
Pages:
679 - 691
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