Breast self-examination is a simple, inexpensive, and technology-free tool for early detection of breast cancer, and in most countries, specifically in developing countries, it is the only genuine way to detect breast cancer rapidly. So, the current study was done to determine the factors affecting breast self-examination behavior in housewives.
This descriptive-analytical study was done with 450 housewives aged 20-40 years visiting health centers in Birjand, South Khorasan. The sample was randomly selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of demographic information and transtheoretical model constructs and then were entered into the SPSS 19 software. Variables of normal distribution were analyzed using t tests and one-way analysis of variance, while non-normal data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher’s exact tests.
The mean age of women was 30.7 ± 5.2 years. Based on the structure of the change steps, 32.9% of the women were at the precontemplation stage, 19.6% at the contemplation stage, 23.3% at the preparation stage, 18.2% at the action stage, and 6% at the maintenance stage. The mean score was 2.33 ± 0.57 for the decision structure, 2.51 ± 0.82 for the change process, and 1.61 ± 0.81 for the self-efficacy. Among the variables studied, the level of education and awareness showed a significant relationship with the model constructs (p < 0.05).
According to the results of the study, most women studied did not perform breast self-examination. Consequently, it is necessary to perform educational interventions to improve the behavior of breast self-examination.
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