A Critique of Detachment (Tafkiki) Theology from the Philosophical Point of View of Mohammad Baqer Majlesi
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Abstract:
Abstract The present paper looks through Islamic Philosophy and Detachment Theory from the point of view of Mohammad Bāqir Majlisi. In fact, it aims to set a tribunal between Islamic Philosophy and Detachment School of thought in the view of the Second Majlesi, the author of Mir’āt al-Uqul fi Sharh Akhbār al-Rasul (the Mirror of Intellects on Description of Traditions of Prophet’s Descendants). The source for the study is mainly the book Al-Aghl val-Jahl (Intellect and Ignorance) and Al-Tawhid fi Kitab al-Kafi (Oneness of God in Kitab al-Kafi) along with Mohammad Baqer Majlesi’s interpretation of these two books. Majlesi’s rational method and the ontological principles he utilized to extract and deduce the impeccable Imam’s intention from his words are also investigated, compared to and analyzed with ideologies of Detachment Theology. Summary of the Paper Detachment Theology in this paper is a particular movement in the arena of religious knowledge pursuing thoughts originated from Mirza Mahdi Esfahani and expanded by his disciples. The axis of this school of thought is to seek ways to understand religion from religion itself and avoid utilizing philosophical and mystical methods and therefore their achievements to perceive divine knowledge. Claims and principles of Detachment Theology have a long history in the Islamic world; however, it was systematically processed in the school of Mirza Mahdi Esfahani and his disciples. Nevertheless, the point neglected is Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi’s point of view and his critique on these principles. In his book The Mirror of Intellects which is an extended interpretation of Kitab al-Kafi and especially in his interpretation of Book of Intellect and Book of Oneness of Kitab al-Kafi, Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi discusses and overtly criticizes principles and intellectual roots based on which Detachment Theology is developed. Majlesi’s critique is based on a philosophical view and such a view was and is completely neglected by him. In his interpretation of the Book of Intellect, Majlesi defines the term “Intellect” according to traditions and refers to its philosophical definition as an acceptable one. Furthermore, in his interpretation of the Book of Oneness, Majlesi bases understanding of traditions on philosophical ontology and uses terms like existence, nature, possibility, necessity, cause, cognation, necessarily existent by itself and possibly existent by itself repetitively so that an understanding of traditions is formed. He refers to the creator and the creature as necessarily existent by itself and possibly existent by itself, believes in a cause and effect relationship between them and accepts the cognation between cause and effect and especially the necessary and the possible and therefore he, like philosophers, believes that if there is no cognation, theology will break down when it comes to cognition. In this regard, he admits all principles around causality rules and the rule of “the one who gives something could not lack it”. Concepts and principles all criticizing and rejecting Detachment Theology are discussed and analyzed in the present paper to show that Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi possessed a philosophical view.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
Comparative Theology, Volume:11 Issue: 23, 2020
Pages:
35 - 46
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