Comparison between energy, environmental and economical indicators of irrigated wheat and saffron agroecosystems in Khorasan-e Razavi Province
Message:
Abstract:

The aims of the present study were to compare irrigated wheat (as a high input and conventional system) and saffron (as a low input and traditional system) production systems in Khorasan-e Razavi during 2018. Data for wheat (as an annual crop) and saffron (as a 6-year perennial crop) were collected from 32 growers by using a face-to-face questionnaire in 2018. Energy efficiency indicators, economic indicators, ecological indicators for land, water and chemical fertilizers and life cycle assessment (LCA) were calculated accordingly. In this regard, four phases, which are goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation, were designed to assess life cycle index based on ISO14044 procedure. The maximum inputs for wheat system were related to nitrogen fertilizer and diesel fuel and for saffron systems were corm and electricity. Energy productivity for saffron and wheat systems were computed 0.000019 and 0.097 kg.MJ-1, and energy intensiveness were 46.93 and 33.48 MJ.$-1, respectively. Land use efficiency for wheat and saffron were calculated with 21.36 and 0.01 kg.ha-1 and economic land productivity were 1.51 and 0.52 $.kg-1day-1, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency for wheat and saffron agroecosystems were recorded with 24.57 and 0.04, respectively. The highest emission of pollutants was belonged to eutrophication aquatic category. Aquatic eutrophication potential for saffron and wheat farming systems were computed with 9.68 kg PO4 eq./one kg of stigma and 0.26 9.68 kg PO4 eq./one tonne of seed, respectively. Environmental indicators for saffron and wheat agroecosystems were calculated with 22.62 Ecox per one kg of stigma and 0.46 Ecox per one tonne of seed, respectively.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
Journal of Saffron Research, Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2020
Pages:
29 - 54
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