About 250,000 hectares of warm dryland regions have moderate to low rainfall, high temperatures and poor soil fertility with low production potential. Wheat cultivars which are currently used by farmers in these harsh environments, have low production in many years or they cannot be harvested due to their short plant's height or shriveled grains. Aseman cultivar with pedigree of KABY/3/TEVEE2/URES//FUN/KAUZ was generated by using the compatible parents at Gachsaran Agricultural Research Station in 2005-2006 cropping season. After a six-year period evaluation of the genetic material in the segregating populations, Aseman along with other selected pure lines were selected for further investigation through preliminary, advanced, and elite regional yield trails for four consecutive cropping seasons. In these experiments, average grain yield of new cultivar in Gachsaran and Behbahan stations, as well as in low-yield farms located in Golestan (Agh Ghala), Bushehr (Deilam) and Khuzestan (Haftakel) provinces was 2894 kgha-1, showing 3% superiority to Karim as the check cultivar. The average grain yield of Aseman in uniform regional trials was 2737 kgha-1 and it had a significant difference (p < /em> < 0.01) with Chamran (21% superiority) in the Gachsaran and Agh Ghala )for two years), as well as Behbahan, Haftkhel and Deilam (for one year) stations. Under severe drought and heat stresses in Deilam, Behbahan and Haftakel stations, the mean grain yield of the new cultivar increased by 37% and 10% compared to the Chamran and Karim cultivars, respectively. Early maturity, taller height and appropriate seed weight, especially under severe heat and drought stresses conditions and also superior baking quality are prominent characteristics of Aseman cultivar. These characteristics justify the importance of introducing this new cultivar for cultivation in the low-yield warm dryland regions of Iran.
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