Reflecting the Islamic Judicial Rule of Prohibiting Women from Judging
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (بدون رتبه معتبر)

Judgment is one of the social special positions which Islamic jurists disagree about the issue of occupying it by women. Scholars rely on the Qur’an, Sunnah, consensus and intellectual evidences to prove their own idea. The condition of being a male for a judge was first raised by Sunni jurists. Sheikh Tūsī was the first Shiite scholar who accepted it, as such before him there was no trace of this condition in Shiite jurisprudence. Allameh Hillī firstly was attributed to the idea of consensus on the masculine condition for a judge, as he thought that the women’ judgment would result in social problems and sedition. Many jurists and scholars followed Sheikh al-Tā'ifa (Tūsī) in this issue, and even later jurists claimed consensus on it. Shahīd 'Awwal in Lum'ah, the author of Miftāh al-Kirāmah, the author of Jawāhir, Sheikh Ansārī, and others say that women may only arbitrate (tahkīm). This research analyzes Islamic documents, using the descriptive-analytical method. Findings show that the prohibition of female judging in Islamic jurisprudence is not definitive, nor an Islamic necessary and definite rule. Most Islamic jurists do not accept getting the judge position for women, regarding their ijtihad and inference. They only accept the position of tahkīm (arbitration) which does not conclude the condition of being a man. Therefore, it is not the case that a woman does not have the right to judge. The issue of the possibility of sedition is also a mutual affair for both men and women, which is not specific to the profession of judgment. The inherent and natural differences between men and women in judicial affairs, like other social occupations, play the least role.

Journal of Comparative Studies of Jurisprudence and Principles, Volume:4 Issue: 2, 2022
23 - 65  
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