MRSA became a widely recognized cause of mortality worldwide with necessity of its epidemiological pattern study. Typing of MRSA isolates was performed molecularly based on SCCmec type and relation to resistance pattern was investigated.
Out of 200 clinical specimens, S. aureus was detected phenotypically and confirmed as MRSA by PCR in 124 isolates obtained from associated laboratories of different hospitals of Zagazig, during 2018-2019. Antimicrobial resistance pattern was detected and MRSA SCCmec was typed by two methods.
S. aureus rate was high in wounds, sputum, blood, and urine isolates. Antimicrobial resistance rates against cefotaxime, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, linezolid and vancomycin were 82.3%, 65.3%, 56.4%, 45.1%, 37.1%, 32.3%, 32.3%, 25%, 7.3%, 2.4% and 0%, respectively. Multiplex-PCR(M-PCR ) was able to detect SCCmec element among 57% of isolates classified as SCCmec II (n=40), III (n=21), IVa (n=3), IVd (n=2), V(n=1), and four isolates contain both SCCmec ІІ and SCCmec ІV. Traditional typing by PCR for mec and ccr gene complexes was almost concordant with M-PCR. Furthermore, it was able to identify SCCmec types VI, IX, and XIV among 1, 3 and 18 isolates, respectively. No Statistical correlation was established between type of cassette and rate of antimicrobial resistance. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that all ccr types were related to each other and no significant variation in the same ccr type of different SCCmec cassettes.
Most MRSA isolates were MDR reflecting antimicrobials misuse. Detection of various SCCmec types among MRSA isolates indictae the complexity of MRSA epidemiology and increase chance for gene sharing creating new types.The presented investigation was important in understanding MRSA epidemiology and diversity in Egypt providing advice for improving therapeutic protocols.
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