Women's employment is one of the most important issues of gender equality and essential for economic development. Which has been accompanied by a significant growth in the social status of women in society (2). However, most working women face a number of challenges with the pressures of work and housekeeping that can be affected by the type of job and its demands (7).Women in different occupations are viewed in such a way that among the general public, characteristics such as sensitive and affection are related to the feminine gender role schemas, and characteristics such as aggression and courage are related to the masculine gender role schemas. Comparatively, it has led to the presence of men in high-powered social roles (management and politics) and the presence of women in low-power social roles (education and care) in jobs (10).On the other hand, women's employment in traditional masculine occupations such as politics exposes them to double anxiety, which is rooted in gender stereotypes and hinders the promotion of women's success in these occupations and endangers their mental health (20). However, according to the World Health Organization statement (2015) on the reduction of psychosocial and occupational stress by 2020, it seems that a full understanding of the mental health of occupational workers, especially women, is necessary (24). So, considering the importance of the role and position of women in the family and society, it seems that employment in occupations that are considered masculine in terms of gender stereotypes can affect the gender role schemes and mental health of women working in these occupations. Therefore, the researcher seeks to answer the question of whether there is a difference between mental health and gender role schemas in women working in political and non-political governmental organizations?
The present study is a quantitative study. To conduct this research using the formula "Comparison of the average of two societies" among all women working in political governmental organizations(included: Khorasan Razavi Governor's Office, Mashhad Governor's Office, Representation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the North and East of the Country)and women working in non-political governmental organizations (included: Education, University of Medical Sciences, Welfare and…) in Mashhad in 2020, 114 women working in the political systems and 384 women working in the non-political systems , were selected as a sample. Then Bem sex role inventory (including 30 questions and 3 subscales) and Goldberg general health questionnaire (including 28 questions and 4 subscales) were distributed and collected among the samples. Finally, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and independent t-tests were used to analyze the data.
The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups of women working in political and non-political governmental organizations in terms of the mean score of the masculine gender role schemas (p = 0.001). However, there were no significant difference between the two groups of women working in political and non-political governmental organizations in terms of the mean score of feminine gender role schemas and social desirability scale (p>0.05) (Table 1).It was also found that there were a significant difference between the two groups of women working in political and non-political governmental organizations in terms of the mean total score of mental health and the subscales of physical symptoms and anxiety and insomnia (p<0.05). But there were no significant difference between the two groups of women working in political and non-political governmental organizations in terms of mean scores of social dysfunction and depression (p>0.05) (Table 2).
The results showed that there were no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean scores of feminine gender role schemas and social desirability scale. However, the average score of the masculine gender role schemas in women working in political governmental organizations is significantly higher than women working in non-political governmental organizations.it seems that though women's employment and changing their social role from housekeeping to bread-winner in the community and family have been accompanied by increasing independence, self-confidence and strengthening masculine gender characteristics in both groups of women working in political and non-political governmental organizations, However, women's employment in political governmental organizations that are not commensurate with their gender role (compared to women working in non-political governmental organizations, which is more commensurate with the feminine gender role of women), has further strengthened the reciprocal behaviors of gender stereotypes and the masculine gender role schemas.On the other hand, it was found that women working in non-political governmental organizations have significantly better mental health status than women working in political governmental organizations. It seems that most women working in masculine jobs, receive less support from men due to their limited number of them in these jobs and their lower control and decision-making power, which can greatly affect their mental health.Whereas, women working in feminine jobs often receive more support from both groups of women and men working in these workplaces due to higher control and decision-making power, and therefore, have a better mental health status (35).
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