Reactive oxygen species are the main factors involved in kidney damage during renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR). Since D-limonene has antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-apoptotic, and lipid peroxidation effects, it prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibits ROS, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pretreatment with D-limonene on oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in RIR injury.
In this experimental study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, RIR (ischemia was induced by clamping of renal pedicles for 45 minutes and reperfusion was considered 24 hours after ischemia), and RIR+D-limonene (100 mg/kg by oral gavage for 12 days). Serum and kidney were used to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), paraoxonase1 (PON1), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and nitric oxide (NO).
Serum and renal levels of MDA ([18.2±98.77 vs. 9.21±1.77] and [19.85±3.39 vs. 9.84±1.65]) and MPO ([67.25±32.67 vs. 40.21±6.1] and [18.44±2.86 vs. 10.42±1.68]) and serum level of NO (31.3±36.1 vs. 27.88±2.6) significantly increased in the RIR group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Serum and kidney levels of GSH, activities of CAT and GPX in serum and kidney, and serum activity of PON1 significantly decreased in the RIR group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pretreatment with D-limonene could significantly ameliorate serum and renal levels of MDA, serum levels of GSH and NO, and serum activity of CAT in rats pretreated with D-limonene in comparison with RIR rats (p<0.05).
This study indicated that pretreatment with D-limonene could ameliorate RIR injuries in rats through its antioxidant activities.
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