Total Insights on Goiter in Children: A Mini-review
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Article Type:
Review Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:
Background

Thyroid disorder is one of the main endocrine problems in childhood. In children with thyroid disorders, goiter is common. 

Objectives

In this mini-review, the authors aimed to present total insights on goiter in children. 

Methods

This is a mini-review about total insights on goiter in children. This review included articles assessing goiter in children. Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar were investigated to find appropriate articles regarding goiter in children from 1988 to 2021. The keywords were thyroid, goiter, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid nodule. The authors included all study types assessing the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of goiter in childhood. 

Results

Through taking the medical history and performing a physical examination, clinicians can differentiate types of goiter, including diffuse or nodular toxic or non-toxic, which can present themselves in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid states. When taking a medical history, clinicians have to ask patients about their food intake, place of residence, and nutrient deficiencies to abstain from goitrogens. Diverse treatment methods are required for goiter in euthyroidism, hypophyroidism, and hyperthyroidism. In patients with euthyroidism, whenever there is iodine deficiency, a history of irradiation to the neck, or Hashimoto’s disease, suppressive therapy is needed. Both clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism need levothyroxine. Besides, in hyperthyroidism, antithyroid drugs, iodine therapy, or surgery are needed. Both clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism need levothyroxine.

Conclusions

In hyperthyroidism, antithyroid drugs, iodine therapy, or surgery are needed. Based on the importance of managing goiter in children, clinicians have to consider food intake, vitamin deficiency, and iodine status in these patients.

Language:
English
Published:
Journal of Pediatrics Review, Volume:10 Issue: 2, Apr 2022
Pages:
145 to 154
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