Posterior fossa tumors (PFTs) are prevalent in children, and about half of all childhood brain tumors arise from the structures of the posterior fossa. Studies on PFTs in Iranian children have mainly focused on epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate surgical outcomes and predictive factors for survival in children with PFTs in Shiraz, Iran. A prospective cohort study was conducted from March 2014 to September 2019 in Namazi Hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran). A total of 87 pediatric patients under the age of 16 who were diagnosed with PFT and had undergone surgery were recruited. The children were followed up for postoperative outcomes such as mortality and neurological complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20.0) and R software (version 3.3.1). P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the patients was 6.49±4.14 years and 64.4% were male. Sixteen patients were lost to follow-up, 31 died after surgery, and 40 were in remission during phone calls. The median survival time of the patients was four years. The most common type of PFT was medulloblastoma (n=46, 53%). The result of the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that age (P=0.034) was correlated with postoperative survival, hazard ratio 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.99). Among various predictive factors, lower age was associated with poor outcomes in pediatric children with PFTs.
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