Tooth decay is the main cause of pulp and periapical diseases, and when the pulp involves the tooth, there is no other choice but to drain the pulp to save the tooth. The emergence of new methods of regenerative treatments has made it possible to restore dental pulp and dentin. Since regenerative treatments have been limited to immature teeth, this study was conducted to regenerate mature pulp tissue by dental pulp stem cell transplantation along with Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Matrix in rabbits.
This experimental pilot study was conducted on a maxillary central incisor in a 1-year-old 2kg adult male albino rabbit. After completely cleaning the pulp tissue from the root and crown and washing the root canal, File #30 was passed through the apex to cause bleeding. Then dental pulp stem cells along with PRP were injected into the canal and the crown was sealed with glass ionomer cement. After 14 days, a radiograph was taken from the tooth, the extracted tooth was stained by hematoxylin-eosin and examined by light microscope.
In the histological examination, in the inner wall of the root canal of odontoblasts, small thickness was observed in tubular dentin (about 1 mm) and pseudovascular structures. Furthermore, the entire space of the root canal was filled with a small and scattered number of inflammatory cells and pulp-like living tissue.
Based on the results of this study, the observation of pseudovascular structures indicates the regenerative potential of dental pulp stem cells and opens a window for studies with more samples to effectively regenerate the dental pulp.
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