Factors Determining Primary Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon among Opium Users and Non-users: A Case Control Study in Northern Iran
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) represents a clinical entity with recurrent chest pain leading to living impairment. The present study aimed to investigate whether opium use correlates with primary CSFP.


This study included Iranian patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging. Coronary blood flow was measured quantitatively using the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count and slow flow was defined as TIMI grade 2 standard deviations. Age and clinical conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidemia (HLP), history of chest pain, and opium use were recorded. First, the characteristics of the two groups were compared and then the main analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between CSFP and opium use. Data were analyzed using t test and chi-square test via SPSS 25.0. The significance level was set at P<0.05.


This study was conducted on 44 male patients with documented CSFP who had no stenotic lesions and 134 control group male patients who had normal coronary arteries with normal flow. The mean age was similar in the two groups (54.25 vs.52.69, P=0.474). Two groups were significantly different in terms of history of chest pain (P=0.003), but there was no significant difference in HTN (P=0.084), DM (P=0.284), HLP (P=0.183), smoking (P=0.696), and opium use (P=0.107). 


This study indicated that opium use is not associated with primary CSFP.

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