Iranian officials and the flourishing of medical knowledge in the Gurkanian government

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (بدون رتبه معتبر)

The migration of Iranian elites to the Indian subcontinent and their decisive role in the development of civilizational manifestations of this land, especially medical knowledge is very important. These migrations were due to repulsive factors in Iran and gravity in India. Issues such as the religious policy of the Safavid kings, the Safavids' lack of attention to the scientific elite, the Uzbek invasions of eastern Iran, especially Khorasan, the emergence of movements such as Naqtawiyah and the Afghan invasion, and the fall of the Safavid government in Iran accelerated these migrations. On the other hand, the existence of geographical and political attractions in the Indian subcontinent, the political and cultural role of the Gurkhani sultans, the implementation of a policy of tolerance and creating suitable conditions for providing living facilities and job security and art and knowledge and friendship of Indian rulers attract Iranian elites. Provided. A number of medical scientists also achieved important military and political positions in the Gurkhanian court due to the scientific environment and comfort, influenced by the safe and comfortable environment, and provided civilized services in a worthy position. In fact, the term "position" referred to many military elites who were active in various scientific, political and artistic affairs and played a significant role in the development of the Gurkhani government. Immigrant Iranians who held positions in the military hierarchy also held political and administrative positions. Among the most famous Iranian immigrants to India are Abolfath Gilani, Hakim Ali Gilani, Hakim Najibuddin Hammam, Hakim Ain Al-Molk Shirazi, Asef Jah Tehrani, Jafar Beyg Qazvini and Amir Fathollah Shirazi, who in transmitting Iranian culture, development and Completion of medical knowledge and the invention of new methods of treatment played an important role in the Gurkanian court. In the field of medical knowledge, the main actions of Iranian officials were: Explaining the harms of tobacco by Hakim Ali Gilani, a thousandth official in the court of Akbar Shah Gurkhani; He also mentioned the harms of nicotine in tobacco smoke, pointing to the existence of an oil in hookah water, which adds to its harm. His most important work in medical science is Fattahi's book on the description of the law, which was effective in the development of medical knowledge in India. 2.Hakim Ain al-Mulk Shirazi, who held a five-hundredth position in the army, was considered the inventor of issuing medical certificates or medical certificates. This certificate was required to be presented by court agents who had been absent from work for some time due to illness, and in the time of Akbar Shah the method of Hakim Ain al-Mulk's medical certificate became common. He was also one of the leaders in treating chronic wounds. Healed well the deep wounds caused by the assassination attempt on Akbar Shah. He was also proficient in eye surgery and his most important book in this regard was Zia al-Oyun. In general pharmacology, the words al-Adawiyah and al-Fadhul al-Adawiyah were among his unique works. The book of Dara Shokouhi by Hakim Ain al-Mulk was qualitatively at the level of Ibn Sina's law and the Khwarazmshahi reserve of Seyyed Ismail Jorjani, which was a complete collection of Iranian, Indian and Arabic medical information. The name of the book was taken from Darashkooh, the son of Shah Jahan, who had many efforts and services in support of the Iranian immigrant doctors. This book is an encyclopedia of medicine that has descriptive images, comprehensive information and treatment methods as its most important features. 3.Ibn Sina's description of the law by Hakim Ali Gilani, a seven-hundred-year-old Gurkhani court official, was one of the valuable works of Iranian immigrants in the field of medicine. In another of his works, entitled Experience, he proposed his most important medical initiative, the manufacture of a diode oil or ointment, which was very useful in the treatment of bruises or muscle aches and osteoarthritis and is still widely used in India. 4.The establishment of an office was another innovation of Iranian officials, which was done by Mirza Mohammad Ali Shirazi. Opposition to taking blood from a vein was registered even in urgent cases by Hakim Jalaluddin Ardestani, a 200-year-old official of Akbar Shah. 6.The medical procedures of Hakim Daud Taqrib Khan, the son of Inayatullah, a 2500 official in the court of Shah Jahan, are also important. He mentioned the use of cumin to treat bloody diarrhea, the use of green chicory to treat dyspnea and the swelling caused by it, the use of milk thistle to treat constipation, and the use of cold diuretics to relieve urination and constipation. Compilation of medical systems by Hakim Yousefi Heravi had a great impact on the evolution of medical knowledge in Gurkhani court; Because in addition to facilitating medicine and speeding up treatment, it also played an important role in technicalizing and promoting its terms. The system of treatment of diseases in two hundred and eighty-nine quatrains in the symptoms of diseases and the treatment of each of them, the comprehensive system of benefits in the description of rabies and its treatment , The system of food and drink in medical measures for food and drink, the reasons of the pulse about the types of pulse and recognizing diseases through this, the treatise of the reasons of urination about urology and recognizing diseases from it and the treatise on maintaining the health of the body. Fifty-four verses named after Mohammad Babar, the king of Gurkhani, is one of the most important and important ones. Hakim Mohammad Hashem Shirazi, a position holder of 3000 Gurkhani court, by writing books such as Jame Al-Jame'e on the expression of kidney and urinary tract diseases, the condition of the respiratory organs in diseases of the respiratory system and the subject of plants and diseases. Provided. In general, it can be said that the prevalence of Persian and Arabic medical terms in the Indian medical system, ensuring the health of Indian rulers, the trust of the Gurkhani kings in Iranian physicians and the spread of Iranian culture in different parts of the Indian subcontinent were the most important achievements of Iranian officials in the Gurkhanid court.

Journal of Iranian Islamic Studies, Volume:11 Issue: 3, 2021
29 to 50  
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