Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the treatment of choice for renal stones as a safe, effective, and minimally invasive method. However, bleeding remains a major concern in the procedure.
This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of bleeding in PNL.
This retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Urology department of Razi hospital. The data of patients with urinary calculi staghorn type who underwent PNL in a prone position under general anesthesia were recorded. A checklist including patients' demographics, surgical characteristics, and outcomes was filled out for each patient.
The data from 151 complete files were gathered. The mean age of the cases was 47.89 ± 12.41 years. The mean hemoglobin (Hb) drop was 1.92 ± 1.56 mg/dL. At least 1 mg/dL Hb drop was observed in all cases. The highest Hb drop was 3 mg/dL.). There was no significant relationship between stone bulk, age, BMI, GFR, surgery duration, and the number of tracts, and Hb drop during PNL (P > 0.05). But there was a positive correlation between Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) history (P = 0.01) and transfusion (P = 0.0001) and Hb drop during PNL. Also, the history of open kidney surgery (P = 0.031), nephrostomy insertion (P = 0.003), and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy therapy (ESWL) (P = 0.041) were correlated with the increased risk of Hb drop.
Urinary tract infection, history of open surgery, nephrostomy implantation, and ESWL were significantly associated with more bleeding in PNL.
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