Comparison of Effects of Stress and Midazolam on Retrograde and Anterograde Amnesia in Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

 The identification of different factors affecting anesthesia and physiological changes during anesthesia can be effective in improving the quality of anesthesia. Midazolam is a benzodiazepine that has been used for many years for sedation under anesthesia. Stress is also an important factor affecting memory and other physiological changes, such as blood pressure and heart rate.


 his study aimed to investigate the effects of stress on retrograde and anterograde amnesia among patients undergoing general anesthesia.


 This multi-center, parallel, stratified, randomized controlled trial was performed on patients undergoing non-emergency abdominal laparotomy. The patients were divided into high- and low-stress groups according to the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. Then, both groups were randomly divided into three subgroups receiving 0, 0.02, or 0.04 mg/kg of midazolam. Recall cards were shown to patients at 4 minutes, 2 minutes, and immediately before injection to determine retrograde amnesia and at 2 minutes, 4 minutes, and 6 minutes after injection to determine anterograde amnesia. Hemodynamic changes were recorded during intubation. The chi-square and multiple regression tests were used to analyze the data.


 Midazolam injection was associated with the development of anterograde amnesia in all groups (P < 0.05); however, it had no effect on the development of retrograde amnesia (P < 0.05). Midazolam could decrease the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate during intubation (P < 0.05). Stress also caused retrograde amnesia in patients (P < 0.05); nevertheless, it had no effect on anterograde amnesia (P > 0.05). Stress and midazolam injection could not affect the oxygen levels during intubation.


 The results showed that midazolam injection could induce anterograde amnesia, hypotension, and heart rate; nonetheless, it had no effect on retrograde amnesia. Stress was associated with retrograde amnesia and increased heart rate; however, it was not associated with anterograde amnesia.

Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Volume:13 Issue: 1, Feb 2023
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