Metal exposure and breast malignancy: A case-control study of Malwa Region of Punjab
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Breast cancer is triggered by uncontrollable breast cell development. These metals may build up in human serum and tissues, causing estrogenic/malignant consequences. Therefore, metals are being studied to investigate whether they enhance the risk of endocrine-related malignancies like breast cancer.


This study assessed the level of metals such as Cd, As, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, and Fe in 120 women undergoing breast cancer surgery in the Malwa region of Punjab. Subjects having malignant breast lesions (n = 83) were grouped in the cancer case group whereas subjects with benign breast lesions (n = 37) were separated as a control group. From each case, blood, breast tumor, surrounding adipose tissue samples were obtained, and metal analysis was carried out using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).


In malignant cases, the amount of metals ranges from 0.04 to 139.18 μg/kg in tumor. Whereas in adipose tissues and blood, it ranges from 0.04 to 1164.0 μg/kg and from 0.02 to 276.61 μg/kg, respectively. In control group, the total amount ranges from 0.05 to 332.72 μg/kg in the tumor, from 0.13 to 125.61 μg/kg in adipose tissues, and from 0.01 to 121.76 μg/kg in the blood. The level of Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Ni, and Pb were observed to be statistically significant/extremely significant whereas Arsenic was detected in no groups.


The results indicate that Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Ni, and Pb may play a significant role in the development of breast cancer. The parenchymal component of tumor tissues accumulates heavy metals at a higher rate.

Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
87 to 96  
دانلود و مطالعه متن این مقاله با یکی از روشهای زیر امکان پذیر است:
اشتراک شخصی
با عضویت و پرداخت آنلاین حق اشتراک یک‌ساله به مبلغ 990,000ريال می‌توانید 60 عنوان مطلب دانلود کنید!
اشتراک سازمانی
به کتابخانه دانشگاه یا محل کار خود پیشنهاد کنید تا اشتراک سازمانی این پایگاه را برای دسترسی نامحدود همه کاربران به متن مطالب تهیه نمایند!
  • حق عضویت دریافتی صرف حمایت از نشریات عضو و نگهداری، تکمیل و توسعه مگیران می‌شود.
  • پرداخت حق اشتراک و دانلود مقالات اجازه بازنشر آن در سایر رسانه‌های چاپی و دیجیتال را به کاربر نمی‌دهد.
In order to view content subscription is required

Personal subscription
Subscribe for 50 € euros via PayPal and download 60 articles during a year.
Organization subscription
Please contact us to subscribe your university or library for unlimited access!