High-efficient removal of tetrabromobisphenol A from waste mobile phone printed circuit boards leached solution by micellar enhanced ultrafiltration
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Tetrabrombisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the major brominated flame retardants (BFRs) used in waste mobile phone printed circuit boards (WMPPCB) that accounts for approximately 60% of the total BFR market.


The potential of TBBPA removal from WMPPCB leached solution was investigated using micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) in the presence of cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants. The efficiency of several parameters including surfactant concentration, transmembrane pressure (TMP), pH, and TBBPA concentration, was evaluated to improve the MEUF. The optimal conditions were used to assess the MEUF for removing TBBPA in a real sample.


The cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) showed better performance than other surfactants in removing TBBPA due to its electrostatic interactions with anionic forms of TBBPA. The removal efficiency of TBBPA increased from 48.99% to 99.10% by adding a surfactant (less than the critical micelle concentration). Increasing the pH in the range of 5 to 11 increased the efficiency of TBBPA removal due to the increase in the TBBPA solubility in the micelles. TMP had the most significant effect on permeate flux compared to other parameters but did not significantly affect the TBBPA removal efficiency. The MEUF process effectively removed (above 99%) TBBPA in the concentration range of 20 to 80 mg L-1 under optimal conditions. The HPLC-UV analysis of the real sample indicated the removal efficiency of 100% of TBBPA.


MEUF using CPC is a critical performance technology for removing TBBPA from the leached solution of electronic waste.

Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter 2023
97 to 105
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