Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is known to be the most common cardiac disorder in fetuses of diabetic mothers, especially when diabetes is not controlled in pregnancy. This study aimed as to estimate the prevalence of HCM in neonates born to diabetic mothers and to evaluate therapeutic interventions with follow-up after six months. We also focused on the possible association of neonatal HCM with the maternal type of diabetes.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2016, and September 2017, in the Cardiac Clinic of Yazd, a city in the center of Iran. The subjects were 150 neonates of mothers with diabetes. We determined HCM through fetal echocardiography before treatment and assessed the maternal and fetal factors. Finally, after a 6-month follow-up period, the data were analyzed statistically.
According to the results, the prevalence of HCM in neonates of diabetic mothers was 14% (P < 0.0001). The results showed that there is a relationship between maternal uncontrolled diabetes and the incidence of HCM in the infant (P < 0.0001), but there is no relationship between the type of diabetes and the incidence of HCM. Our results also showed that propranolol was effective in improving HCM, and spontaneous recovery of HCM was low in infants.
We concluded that controlling maternal diabetes has the greatest effect on the prevention of HCM in neonates. Also, neonates of diabetic mothers need more heart tests and follow-ups. Therefore, more studies on the effects of maternal diabetes-induced HCM in neonates are needed.
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