The incidence of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. The exact prevalence of GDM in Iran is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of GDM and the risk factors based on a cohort study in Yazd.
This is a prospective cohort study involving 3110 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Yazd, Iran between 2015 and 2020. GDM was diagnosed using an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) for each participant at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Demographic information was collected at enrollment and during pregnancy. The multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for GDM.
The overall incidence of GDM was 10.93% in this study. The incidence of GDM in the first, second and third trimesters were 5.65, 2.25 and 3.11%, respectively. The mean age of mothers was calculated to be 28.64 ± 5.53 years. By logistic regression, significant factors associated with GDM were age, Preeclampsia, Pregnancy High blood pressure, history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity.
In this population, the incidence of GDM was 10.93%, which was high. The significant risk factors for GDM were age, BMI, smoking, smoking exposure in the current pregnancy and history of GDM and DM. Also, GDM pregnancies have a higher risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Therefore, considering the high incidence of GDM in Yazd, general screening is highly recommended and more studies are needed in other parts of Yazd province.
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