Levels of struggle in the literature of resistance
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (بدون رتبه معتبر)

He never prevented the workers from seeking knowledge in Jabal Amel during the time of al-Jazzar, and after that, the French occupation, “And if his light faded in some eras that were described as harsh, he would return active and prosperous” in cases of calm, especially in the early eras of Jabal Amel. Science in Jabal Amel had scientific centers since ancient times, that were considered as scientific bases. This research places its hand on the era of the seventh century, when the area knew a wide spread of science, in all its regions, and it was known later as centers of science in Jezzine, Mashghara, and Ainatha, till it reached every southern village and every house in it, and schools were established in each one of them where it was interested, in the first stage, in teaching the ancient religious, jurisprudential and philosophical sciences, and it was repeated till the schools became, in a later stage, interested in teaching science, arithmetic, algebra, medicine, geometry and arabic sciences, such as grammar, morphology, eloquence, and language”, and many other sciences. After the spread of chaos, corruption, injustice, and under the fear and pressure during the Ottoman occupation, the scholars of Jabal Amel migrated to Iraq, Najaf and Iran, and did not return until tranquility and safety return back to it, so that they would have a role in the intellectual and cultural movement in it. Jabal Amel knew the missionaries, after Napoleon’s campaign on Egypt, and it had several schools in “Tyre, Marjayoun, and Jezzine”. The mentioned information is just the tip of what abounded in Jabal Amel of scholars, intellectuals, thinkers, and researchers, that lived in an atmosphere full of injustice, and witnessed it closely, which prompted them, in a later era, to push the scientific movement forward through their schools and their public and private libraries that were open to students. Based on the above, we see that the political history of this area is full of wars, revolutions, and strife with the support of colonialism and usurping states, which was reflected on the social situation that led to the workers' suffering. In this context, we place our hand on the cultural thinking of the workers, and we see that despite the chaos that the region went through, its people were able to advance their literature, social life, and poetry. Literature in Jabal Amel, from the late eleventh century until the end of the thirteenth century AH (18-19 AD), was in a renewal and liberation movement from imitation in thought and action. We start the journey of resistance literature from Jabal Amel, which never calmed down and did not tire in resisting the occupier and the oppressor with weapons at times, and with science and culture at other times. Accordingly, various aspects of literature open up before us, so we share the struggle with it on multiple levels, including the “human struggle movement, cultural, intellectual, political, social, national and civilized. In this context, the research will present two levels of literary struggle, namely: the human level and the social level.

Journal of Criticism and Theorizing in Arabic Literature, Volume:1 Issue: 3, 2022
19 to 33
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