Oral Ketamine or Nasal Midazolam for Sedation in Pediatric Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

There is no agreement on the route of administration and the drug of choice for providing adequate sedation for pediatric invasive procedures.


We compared the utility, safety, and sedation effects of intranasal midazolam and oral ketamine.

Materials & Methods

This double-blind clinical trial was performed on 100 children aged 2 to 14 years who were candidates for upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: ketamine (4 mg/kg orally) and midazolam (0.1 mg/ kg intranasal). Sedation score, fear levels, children’s behavior at the time of separation from parents, and vital signs were recorded.


Higher systolic blood pressure was seen in children who received ketamine (P=0.012) and lower arterial oxygen saturation in the midazolam group (P=0.023). Also, the level of sedation showed no significant difference between the groups.


Based on the results, administering oral ketamine or intranasal midazolam before endoscopy induced a similar sedation score in children. Also, both methods could be safe and non-invasive modalities for sedation.

Caspian Journal of Neurological Sciences, Volume:9 Issue: 33, Apr 2023
92 to 101
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