Article Type:
Research/Original Article (بدون رتبه معتبر)

Stressors in bees affect them individually as well as at the colony level. Changes in beekeeping practice, such as inspection on a warm day or heating hives on cool days can be stressful to bee colonies. Hive transport and inspection also may cause stress. In addition, warm humid air conditions or sudden change of temperature by pulling air through the base of the hive, as well as the presence of natural or newly introduced enemies (e.g. Vespa velutina, or hive beetles), or sudden alterations of signals around the hives such as constructions or posters may be stressful to bees. Stress signals are received in the brain and free radical formation in cells affects cell metabolism and may cause a reaction to the stressors. The cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to stress can cause cell apoptosis. Gene expression may respond through transcription factors in cells and may repair DNA by antioxidant pathways. Epigenetic responses by DNA methylation may affect cells and the germ line in reaction to stress and their effects in queen reproduction can produce adaptation in their next generation. Following is a description of general effects of stress on Apis mellifera, Apis florea, Bombus terrestris, Blastophaga psenes and parasitic insects.

Iranian Journal of Entomological Research, Volume:14 Issue: 2, 2023
26 to 39  
دانلود و مطالعه متن این مقاله با یکی از روشهای زیر امکان پذیر است:
اشتراک شخصی
با عضویت و پرداخت آنلاین حق اشتراک یک‌ساله به مبلغ 990,000ريال می‌توانید 70 عنوان مطلب دانلود کنید!
اشتراک سازمانی
به کتابخانه دانشگاه یا محل کار خود پیشنهاد کنید تا اشتراک سازمانی این پایگاه را برای دسترسی نامحدود همه کاربران به متن مطالب تهیه نمایند!
  • حق عضویت دریافتی صرف حمایت از نشریات عضو و نگهداری، تکمیل و توسعه مگیران می‌شود.
  • پرداخت حق اشتراک و دانلود مقالات اجازه بازنشر آن در سایر رسانه‌های چاپی و دیجیتال را به کاربر نمی‌دهد.
In order to view content subscription is required

Personal subscription
Subscribe for 50 € euros via PayPal and download 70 articles during a year.
Organization subscription
Please contact us to subscribe your university or library for unlimited access!