Stressors in bees affect them individually as well as at the colony level. Changes in beekeeping practice, such as inspection on a warm day or heating hives on cool days can be stressful to bee colonies. Hive transport and inspection also may cause stress. In addition, warm humid air conditions or sudden change of temperature by pulling air through the base of the hive, as well as the presence of natural or newly introduced enemies (e.g. Vespa velutina, or hive beetles), or sudden alterations of signals around the hives such as constructions or posters may be stressful to bees. Stress signals are received in the brain and free radical formation in cells affects cell metabolism and may cause a reaction to the stressors. The cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to stress can cause cell apoptosis. Gene expression may respond through transcription factors in cells and may repair DNA by antioxidant pathways. Epigenetic responses by DNA methylation may affect cells and the germ line in reaction to stress and their effects in queen reproduction can produce adaptation in their next generation. Following is a description of general effects of stress on Apis mellifera, Apis florea, Bombus terrestris, Blastophaga psenes and parasitic insects.
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