Muscular Stomach in Birds of Prey, Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) and Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliacal); A Morphological Evaluation

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Muscular stomach or gizzard is one of the most important parts of gastrointestinal tract in birds for mechanical and chemical digestion and can vary depending on the bird's eating habits. In the present study, the morphology of muscular stomach in common kestrel, steppe eagle, golden eagle and imperial eagle has been investigated and compared.

Materials & Methods

In this study, common kestrel (n=4), steppe eagle (n=5), golden eagle (n=4) and imperial eagle (n=6) which died because of broken leg and wing, sent to the faculty of veterinary science at Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamadan. The gizzard samples were fixed in 10% formalin buffer solution and the histological process was carried. Finally, H&E, Masson’s trichrome, Orcein and PAS staining were utilized.


The most important difference between the stomach of steppe, golden, and imperial eagles and common kestrel was the lack of keratinous layer in the surface of stomach in eagles. The histological structure of stomach in imperial eagle was more similar to that of steppe eagle. The differences of the stomach of imperial eagle were due to the presence of a thick muscle layer in several different rows with different directions in comparison with steppe and golden eagles.


It can be concluded that, the structure of muscular stomach in common kestrel was similar to gizzard, while the stomach in three species of eagles did not have a keratinous layer.

Iranian Veterinary Journal, Volume:19 Issue: 78, 2023
24 to 34  
دانلود و مطالعه متن این مقاله با یکی از روشهای زیر امکان پذیر است:
اشتراک شخصی
با عضویت و پرداخت آنلاین حق اشتراک یک‌ساله به مبلغ 1,390,000ريال می‌توانید 70 عنوان مطلب دانلود کنید!
اشتراک سازمانی
به کتابخانه دانشگاه یا محل کار خود پیشنهاد کنید تا اشتراک سازمانی این پایگاه را برای دسترسی نامحدود همه کاربران به متن مطالب تهیه نمایند!
  • حق عضویت دریافتی صرف حمایت از نشریات عضو و نگهداری، تکمیل و توسعه مگیران می‌شود.
  • پرداخت حق اشتراک و دانلود مقالات اجازه بازنشر آن در سایر رسانه‌های چاپی و دیجیتال را به کاربر نمی‌دهد.
In order to view content subscription is required

Personal subscription
Subscribe for 70 € euros via PayPal and download 70 articles during a year.
Organization subscription
Please contact us to subscribe your university or library for unlimited access!