Representation of Factors Affecting the Formation of Unethical Pro-organizational Behaviors in the Academic Context
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Background & Purpose

Unethical pro-organizational behaviors as actions for the organization's or its members' interests, despite violating social, and moral values, laws, or behavioral standards. Undoubtedly, behind every unethical pro-organizational behavior a motive or motives that caused such behavior to appear in the interests of the organization or its members. Hence, the main aim of the present study was to identify the factors influencing the formation of unethical pro-organizational behaviors in the academic context.


To achieve this purpose, an exploratory sequential mixed approach was used. In the qualitative phase, we used a phenomenological method to extract the factors influencing the formation of unethical pro-organizational behaviors. Hence, 22 experts were selected using the quota sampling method. The tool used to collect data were a semi-structured interview and the seven-step process of Colaizzi. In the quantitative phase, the classical Delphi technique was used to credit the extracted factors. In this technique, a questionnaire was designed based on the extracted factors in the qualitative phase and distributed among 12 experts, to obtain their consensus about the extracted factors. The quantitative data were also analyzed using statistical methods such as Kendall’s coefficient of concordance, measures of central tendency, and dispersion in SPSS software.


The findings obtained from the qualitative and quantitative phases showed that the experts had reached a consensus on the eight important factors of the formation of unethical pro-organizational behaviors in the academic context which included organizational etiquette, organizational structure, managerial approach, lack of academic autonomy, party and political exchanges, legal weakness, personal opportunism and parochialism, and thinking limitation.


The general conclusion of this study showed that in the academic context, compared to the context of other governmental and non-governmental organizations, individual, organizational, and environmental factors play an effective role in the formation of unethical pro-organizational behaviors. Hence, holding knowledge-building workshops to raise the awareness of the organization's individuals about unethical pro-organizational behaviors in the academic context. Strengthening the culture of transparency around the consequences of unethical pro-organizational behaviors in the academic context and accurately identifying unethical pro-organizational behaviors in the regulations and internal rules of a university should be considered by the top of a university.

Journal of Human Resources management, Volume:13 Issue: 47, 2023
109 to 130  
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