Pollution has emerged as a pressing global concern, as it negatively impacts various water bodies and poses severe threats to both human and aquatic life. Therefore, preventing and mitigating the adverse effects of pollutants on the environment and human health is of utmost importance. Comprehensive understanding of the sources, impacts, and treatment methods of different pollutants is essential. There are several methods available for removing pollutants from water, including physical, chemical, and biological approaches. Each technique possesses its unique advantages and limitations, and selecting the appropriate method largely depends on the nature and extent of contamination, cost, and efficiency. Thus, it is crucial to utilize a combination of different methods to detect and eliminate pollution more effectively. This review provides a detailed analysis of diverse pollutants found in water and the approaches adopted for their elimination, environmental regulations, and new pollutant detection techniques. It aims to compare and evaluate these methodologies for taking crucial steps in removing pollutants from water bodies. The significance of ongoing research in this field is also highlighted to improve and advance pollution prevention techniques in aquatic environments.
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