Association Between COVID-19 Severity and Olfactory Disturbance

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Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:
Background

 There is little information about prognostic factors in patients with COVID-19. One of the aspects of SARS-CoV-2 involvement is the sudden loss of smell, called anosmia.

Objectives

 This study assessed the association between COVID-19 severity and olfactory disturbance.

Methods

 This cohort study was performed at Taleghani Hospital of Iran from March 2021 to March 2022. Patients with a definitive diagnosis of COVID-19, according to a positive PCR test or chest CT scan, entered the study. Data on demographic information, past medical history, severity of COVID-19, olfactory disturbance at the time of hospitalization, and the course of the disease were gathered. Data were analyzed using Stata version 14 software.

Results

 A total of 390 patients entered the study. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, patients with severe and critical COVID-19 were less likely to develop olfactory disturbance (OR = 0.5, P-value = 0.035, 95%CI = 0.2-0.9). Also, obesity was a statistically significant negative predictor of developing olfactory disturbance in patients with COVID-19 (OR = 0.4, P-value = 0.043, 95%CI = 0.1 – 0.9). Diabetes mellitus was a statistically significant positive predictor of developing olfactory disturbance (OR = 3.3, P-value = 0.029, 95%CI = 1.1 – 9.9).

Conclusions

 Patients with severe and critical COVID-19 were less likely to develop anosmia. These patients had lower serum cytokines and presented with milder disease. The severity of olfactory disturbance could be a prognostic factor in COVID-19. It is important to closely monitor patients who exhibit mild olfactory disturbance because they are at risk of more severe COVID-19.

Language:
English
Published:
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume:18 Issue: 3, Jun 2023
Page:
4
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