The Study of N-P-N Tripartite Exocentric Compounds in Persian: An Analysis within the Framework of Construction Morphology

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Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:
In many languages, compounding as a word-formation process is more productive than the other processes. According to this fact, compounding has a special role in the morphology of languages and this process has been concentrated by grammarians and linguists. Compound words of a language can be classified in various ways. In one of these classification methods, compounds are divided into two major categories: exocentric compounds and endocentric compounds. This research is an attempt to explore the N-P-N tripartite exocentric compounds of Persian within the framework of Construction Morphology. The research examines the systematic semantic relations, the possible schema of the N-P-N construction, its subschemas, and the hierarchical structure of this construction in the lexicon of Persian speakers. The data under the study have been collected from the reference book “Farhang-e Farsi-ye Āmiyāne” (Persian Slang Dictionary) written by Abolhasan Najafi which totally includes 88 tripartite compounds. The approach of this research is construction-based and tries to examine the metaphorical and semantic content of the above-mentioned compounds and to justify their word-formation pattern of them based on the concept of “construction” and “constructional schemas”. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and the result of the research demonstrates that all the compounds that are examined in this research can be encoded by 10 semantic relations: property, person property, time, location, state, thing, condition/situation, person, action and repetition of time. Each of these semantic relations and their differences has been represented as a schema which is a pairing of form and meaning.  The results also evinced that there is a direct relation between the semantic transparency of a construction and its frequency and productivity in Persian, there are 70 N-be-N compounds in the corpus which is considerably more than other types of compounds. Therefore, it is concluded that the frequency of the N-P-N compounds is rooted in their semantic transparency.
Language:
Persian
Published:
Language Research, Volume:14 Issue: 1, 2023
Pages:
23 to 47
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